Glossary

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Term Definition
EC50

Short for effective concentration, concentration of a substance that causes the half maximal effect of an observed effect.

Ecosystem

From Greek oikós - house and sýstema - the connected one. An ecosystem describes the association of a habitat (e.g. a forest) with the community of several very different species (plants, animals, microorganisms) living there.

Electrolyte

Greek for electron - amber and lytikós - soluble, a chemical compound that contains mobile ions, which move under the influence of a directional electric field thus generating electrical conductivity of the solution.

Electron microscopy

Is a method for representing very small structures. By using an electron beam instead of light significantly better resolution of about 0.1 nm is achieved, so this type of microscopy often used to detect nanoparticles in cells. The two distinctions are TEM and SEM.

Elemental ratio

Describes the elemental ratio for a substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements. For some nanomaterials, this specific ratio can be used to identify the nanomaterials in complex samples like in the environment.

Endocytosis

Greek for éndon - inside and kytos - a cell, denotes the inclusion of foreign material (microorganisms, particles or solutes) into the cell through invagination and pinching off of portions of the cell membrane with the formation of a vesicle.

Endogenous

Describes processes originating or being produced within an organism, tissue, or cell.

Endosome

Greek endo - inside und soma - body, are vesicles of animal and plant cells that are formed during endocytosis. They belong to the organelles of the cell.

endothelial cells

The tissue which forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especially the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels.

Epidemiology

Derived from the Greek terms epi - upon, among; demos - people, district; logos - study. "The study of what is upon the people". Scientific studies are dealing with the reasons, impacts and extension of health related substances in populations. Epidemiological studies show impacts of toxic substances on the human population, often unintended by incident.

epithelial cells

The thin tissue forming the outer layer of a body's surface and lining the alimentary canal and other hollow structures.

ex vivo

Latin: "out of the living", procedures or processes, in which living biological material, in particular cells, tissues or organs taken from a living organism and cultured outside of that. This will allow treatment and analysis of the material under controlled conditions.

Exogenous

Describes processes having an external cause or origin.

Exposure

Means to expose an object to a particular influence: In the case of nanomaterials, in particular, the contact of humans, animals or the environment with the possibility of incorporating nanomaterials. Both the quantity and the period of ingestion are of concern. For more information, see the Knowledge Base Nanomaterials - Basics - Exposure .

 

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